Thursday, March 12, 2020

What does it mean for items to be thematically linked Essays

What does it mean for items to be thematically linked Essays What does it mean for items to be thematically linked Paper What does it mean for items to be thematically linked Paper It has been suggested that people tend to use a variety of specific strategies when performing a range of cognitive tasks. Cognitive tasks may require the thinker to use a number of different types of strategies whilst performing the following types of mental activities such as thinking, reasoning, categorisation, induction, conceptual combination, metaphor and analogies. In addition to this point the thinker may depend on or select one of many different strategies in order to achieve the cognitive task at hand. Two examples of the different types of strategies used by adults when performing cognitive tasks such as categorisation might include comparison or integration. It has been suggested by some that people tend to compare for similarity amongst taxonomically related items, where as they integrate knowledge about the items when they are thematically linked (Wisniewski Bassok, 1999). Since the brain is responsible for processing both thematic and taxonomic categories then it might depend on the problem (variations in stimuli and task instructions) being faced by the thinker as to what strategy the brain selects to solve the problem. Many cognitive theorists are interested in the mental processes involved in how people organise their knowledge of concepts in order to make efficient use of them in the future. This may be why concepts have been considered by some to be the building blocks of knowledge. Furthermore concepts might become the categories into which our mind classifies perceptions (Lakoff, 1987 [], Lamberts Shanks, 1997 [1]). However concepts in order to belong to a category need to be processed according to related features of the new item (concept) as well as existing concepts within a category. Therefore an item might be assessed according to associations with other category items. Theorists who are interested is these associations have proposed that items can be assigned to categories by way of thematic links or taxonomic links. In order to understand this view it would seem necessary to clarify the distinctions between thematic and taxonomic relations in an attempt to understand why people might tend to draw upon these different strategies whilst judging whether two or more items are related. But what are the conditions that induce such thematic links to take place? The former question is one that has remained the focus of a great deal of research within the areas of conceptual and categorical research. Until recently it was thought that children predominantly relied upon thematic relations when faced with a sorting task and that adults instead used taxonomic relations when faced with the same task. In particular two influential theorists, Inhelder and Piaget (1964 [3]) used methods like object sorting tasks to investigate conceptual development. Object sorting tasks involve the presentation of an array of objects with differing shape, size, colour and type, of which the participant must sort into coherent groups. Studies varied in the type of objects used and the instructions given to participants for example participants might be instructed to put things that go together or to put things that are alike together. Most frequently it was found that children up until the age of eight years old tended to sort items according to thematic relations. Where as beyond the age of eight similarity and taxonomic category relations tended to be the strategy used for sorting (Markman 1981, 1983 [1]). Since many past studies seemed to highlight that children heavily utilised thematic relations whilst developing categories and organising their knowledge which has also been considered as a judgement error, an important question now remains as to whether adults continue to make judgment errors through their use of thematic relations when making conceptual judgments (Lin, 1996 Markman 1989) and if so then what is the reason why this occurs? Ultimately is it an error at all? This essay intends to clarify some of the prior notions by providing evidence from a number of different studies, which have highlighted that adults do tend to make use of thematic links whilst performing cognitive tasks. To begin with contained within this essay will follow an explanation of what it means for items to be thematically linked. In particular this essay will pay attention to the cognitive task of categorisation, which involves judging whether concepts belong within the same category. Ultimately the work of Lin and Murphy in their series of ten studies will be discussed along side the work of Wisneiwski and Bassok in their series of three studies. Both studies have been chosen in order to highlight two interesting opinions regarding the nature of thematic relations used by adult thinkers. A person whilst performing a cognitive task such as categorisation could use a variety of strategies such as to distinguish an items similarity as a basis for determining whether two or more items belong within the same category. Alternatively a person (adult thinker) could utilize a strategy known as integration (Wisniewski Bassok 1999). Within the idea of integration the categoriser may concentrate on some features as well as ignoring others. For example when categorizing two objects one might pay attention to features like having different yet complementary roles within the same event or scene which is considered necessary for thematic linking whilst ignoring that they do not share a common property which is considered to be useful for linking items taxonomically. Hence a common feature that distinguishes a taxonomic category from a thematic category is that a taxonomy has a hierarchical structure, where as a thematic category does not. This structure contains groups of items of the same kind; therefore the members share a common feature or purpose. In addition to this a taxonomy may have a general subject matter such as natural kinds, artefacts or artificially constructed stimuli and this subject matter might consist of a stable structure of members ranging from specialist (super-ordinate), followed by basic to not so well known (sub-ordinate) examples. However a category might also or instead be thematically related; this knowledge usually becomes evident if a concept is taxonomically unrelated. For instance, when a person considers two or more items such as objects, people and other entities that co-occur or interact together in space and time, they could pay attention to the way in which the two items complement each other within a particular scene or event whilst ignoring whether the items share any common properties through class inclusion in other words taxonomic relations. To illustrate the former point: two items such as, chalk and board could be said to share a thematic relation, as they both tend to be used with a classroom. Where as they do not seem to share a taxonomic relation for instance they are not of the same kind nor do they share any common properties. Wisniewski and Bassok highlighted a similar idea within their paper entitled what makes a man similar to a tie. In line with the prior example it could be argued that a man is not similar to a tie (the items man and tie do not share a taxonomic relation) as a man is a human and a tie is not, a tie is made out of material and a man is not and so on. Thus if one were to consider that a man might wear a tie or that a tie signifies masculinity then based upon that thought one might consider a man similar to a tie through a thematic relation. As mentioned earlier the general assumption within the research on adults use of concepts is that they tend to use taxonomic relations as a way of distinguishing two or more items. It has since been argued that one of the reasons for this might lie within the design of the studies used to test categorisation strategies. Further to this it has also been proposed by Lin and Murphy that older children and adults might not commonly use similarity but might instead utilise thematic relations as a basis for categorisation. Therefore it might be that both adults and children do make use of thematic relations when making conceptual judgements. Could it be that the characteristics of the stimuli being considered by the thinker seem to act as a prerequisite for the process to be used regardless of age? In line with this suggestion is another view provided by Wisniewski and Bassok: Often in daily life people are not given task instructions but rather, processing is determined by properties of the stimuli around them. Therefore Wisniewski and Bassok might argue that when an adult is considering the properties of two or more stimuli they might ask themselves a number of questions like what makes an item similar to another and what sets it apart from another item? For instance a person (adult) when performing th e task of moving house might methodically sort out the things that they are going to take with them in order to make the process of unpacking easier later down the line. The logic applied to this scenario of sorting might differ from person to person depending on the strategy selected at the time by the categoriser. In this example the thinker might assess the items in terms of features like whether they look similar therefore grouping only those items that could be considered as looking the same whilst excluding items with similar uses. Where as another person might assess the items in terms of whether they are used within the same environment. For example knives despite having several uses might go in a box with many other kitchen items, as they tend to be stored within the kitchen environment. Forks might also be packed alongside knives as they too are found within the kitchen and also tend to be used with a knife during the event of eating dinner. Furthermore knives and forks are thematically linked within the event of an eating situation which usually takes place within a kitchen therefore they are not only found but also used within then kitche n. One of the few experiments conducted specifically to look at the issue of whether adults tend to prefer to choose thematically related concepts to form a category even when a taxonomic alternative exists was carried out by Lin and Murphy. In Lin and Murphys series of experiments they used a forced choice category construction tasks to investigate the prior notion. The tasks involved presenting participants with a triad of item names that referred to people, objects and events. At the top of the triangle was the target item, below that were the two other items; one of which was a thematic match and the other the taxonomic match. The participant had to choose which items goes best with the target to form a category. In one example the target item was cat with a taxonomic match of lion and a thematic alternative of litter box. Therefore the participant had to choose whether lion or litter box was the best match to form a category with cat. Lin and Murphy found contra to previous findings that almost twice as many adults within their study preferred to construct thematic categories even with the presence of taxonomic alternatives. In another series of three studies carried out by Wisniewski and Bassok (1999 [3]), the centre of attention was upon the effects of stimulus compatibility in relation to processing. These studies were designed to follow on from the Bassok and Medin (1997 [3]) study. Wisniewski and Bassok (1999 Experiments 1-3 [3]) focused on how well an item matched with another item in relation to the type of process that was selected by the thinker. In the first experiment, which looked at comparison versus integration, Wisniewski and Bassok varied items in four ways for example 1) taxonomically related and thematically related, 2) neither taxonomically nor thematically related, 3) taxonomically related but not thematically related, 4) thematically but not taxonomically related. Participants were instructed either to provide or not to provide a reason as to why they rated the pairs as being similar. They found that stimulus compatibility had an influence on the particular process selected by the thinker whilst performing a similarity judgment exercise. In addition, Wisniewski and Bassok paid particular attention to the processes of integration and comparison by suggesting that easily alignable items (taxonomic) should invoke the process of comparison where as poorly alignable items (thematic) should increase the chance of items being integrated. Furthermore they found contra to prior opinion that task instructions might not be the over-riding factor responsible for inducing the correct process for the thinker to select. The task required the participant either to provide an explanation or not to provide one whilst considering the similarity within pairs of objects. Participants were often found to integrate thematically related items even though they were instructed to compare for similarity. Where as in an additional (Wisniewski Bassok 1999, Experiment 3 [3]) study participants compared taxonomically related items whilst looking for thematic relatedness. Given that adults use of taxonomic categories has received a lot more research compared to thematic usage amongst adults it has thus been assumed that use of taxonomic categories indicates a more powerful and advanced way of thinking (Markman Callanan, 1983 [2]). A gap seems to exist since the same amount of research has not been committed to the study of adults usage of thematic relations. It may be that thematic relations amongst members within a thematic category might provide a basis for the thinker to extend knowledge to other category members. Lin and Murphy subsequently tested this notion in a series of experiments In essence the evidence discussed within this essay seems to highlight firstly that adults do indeed make use of thematic relations not only within an experimental situation but also in everyday life and secondly the need for more research to be carried out into other areas of adults use of thematic relations in particular social situations. As Markman (1981) suggested people tend to spend less time on cataloguing objects whilst trying to generate taxonomies to which objects belong and more time on organising their experiences. Therefore it might seem reasonable to assume that adults who spend time organising their experiences have an increased expertise within the field of relating experiences (scenarios and events) thematically.

Monday, February 24, 2020

Health Care Legal Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Health Care Legal - Essay Example Further, in some cases errors, which rendered harm to the patients, are not reported which in the later stage turn out to produce adverse circumstances that becomes difficult to be managed. Again, the medical staffs fail to provide required information about errors and adverse circumstances for the fear of being proved guilty and duly punished. Programs made to encourage the healthcare employees to come forward with such information by evading fear from their minds have also failed to counter significant changes (Griffin & Haraden, n.d.p.246, 250). The healthcare practices with a view to reduce the incidence of fatal occurrences can look forward in designing effective systems for rendering effective health services. In that, the healthcare concern can arrange for proper training of the medical staffs to render effective and flawless service to the patients. The healthcare employees working in critical areas like operation theaters, emergency departments, and intensive care units must be trained in teams to reduce the incidence of errors. Working in a team helps an individual to perform more effectively. Modern healthcare systems incorporate newer technological developments. However, more number of innovations promoted in healthcare result to making the process more complex, which in turn leads to errors. Induction of newer technologies must be conducted with due care to help the medical team perform efficiently. Technological processes as automated order entry would help the medical team to identify expired medicines and right ly destroy them. The use of efficient monitoring instruments helps to judge the condition of patients subjected to strong medications. The healthcare organizations must take resort to increased bar coding practices to reduce the incidence of wrong medications. Machine readable bar coding systems must be put to render accuracy in the system (Griffin & Haraden, n.d.pp.257-258; Kohn, Corrigan & Donaldson, 2000.pp.173,

Saturday, February 8, 2020

Positive Effects of Using Correct Writing Strategies Research Paper

Positive Effects of Using Correct Writing Strategies - Research Paper Example Mistakes are part of learning and should thus be taken positively. The student can assess their mistakes and those of their peers and learn from the experience. However, the learning process occurs when correcting mistakes. The correction process should involve giving positive feedback, which enlightens the learner on the areas that require improvement. There are different types of mistakes that learners of a second language can make. Some errors are serious to an extent that they hamper communication. This happens when the learner is incapable of constructing comprehendible sentences. The main errors that make communication through writing impossible are mainly grammatical errors, which can be corrected. There are varying strategies that can be used by teachers to correct learners. In my leaning inkshedding and peer review turned out to be very helpful and enabled me to learn how to write correctly. Inkshedding could help students learn a language since it enables them to realize the best strategies to use in writing to communicate their idea to others effectively. In most cases, learners are unaware of their mistakes and require someone else to help them identify and correct their mistakes. On the one hand, inkshedding helps the ESL to communicate with the teacher, and the teacher is able to give valuable comments that enable the students to identify their weaknesses and improve their writing skills. Additionally, inkshedding enables the teacher to motivate the learners without making them feel anxious. After identifying their mistakes, the students are able to correct them even on their own. According to W. Susan, (2001)"Teacher can get an immediate glimpse into what each student thinking, this is more useful than the limited amount of feedback one receive from few students who are just routinely talking." Indeed, whenever I get my inkshed back, I see many valuable comments ma de by the instructor.  Ã‚  

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

The world Of Mice and Men Essay Example for Free

The world Of Mice and Men Essay Question: The world Of Mice and Men is one of hostility and suspicion. Explore the second chapter of Of Mice and Men in the light of this statement and decide whether you agree. Introduction Of Mice and Men is a contrasting story to others because it has many different sides to it. You could look at it one way and say that its a joyful book and has only a couple of nasty people in the book, But you could look at it the other way and say that the ranch is a horrible, mean and a fight to survive. The Bunkhouse is a small room with 8 beds made up and the other three showing their burlap ticking, the walls were whitewashed and the floor was unpainted. From only the first few lines of chapter two and you can see that Steinbeck has tried to show us the reader that the bunkhouse like the rest of the farm is small and not a nice place to be. When it then goes on to talk about people possetions it shows us that in that time is was normally to only have about 5 things on you (sometimes even less). The Character Candy Candy is the swamper (cleaner of floors by pouring water on it and using a mop to clean of the dirt) on the ranch, when George and Lennie Arrive on the Ranch he is the first person to greet them. He is meant to be an old man, handless and without a Dog. He acts extremely nice towards George and Lennie (some say too nice). Being Old he is trying to keep his job for as long as possible because back then (and still now in America) there was no unemployment befits like there in the UK so he is trying to keep his Job to live by calling everyone a nice fella meaning everyone is kind back to him (most of the time). Interview with Boss In the Interview with the Boss he comes in and trys to ask George and Lennie why they are half a day late to work. George tries to tell him that the Bus driver give us a bum steer. But when the Boss hears this he doesnt even care and carries on about what he had to do. This shows us that the Boss doesnt change his mind at all because he thinks what he does/says is right and thats it but by the end of the talk he is almost like a nice person almost like he has a guard up and when everything is okay the guard goes and along comes a helpful man. The Character Curly Curly is the Bosses Son, he is meant to be small and one of those small guys who hate big guys. As soon as he comes through the door he looks a Lennie and puts up to fits, like you would in a boxing ring. This shows the most hostility of all of the things on the ranch because some guy walks in who the swamper called a nice fella and he tries to start a boxing fight with your Mate/You. After going into the room like hes in a boxing fight he then asks some questions directed to Lennie, Which because George Told Lennie strictly not to talk George has to talk and answer them. This aggravates Curly because he may not be in charge of anything he really thinks himself to be on the top because the Boss will never fire him because he is his son. The Character Curlys Wife Curlys Wife is a tart (a married woman who wants to see other men), well thats that Curly thinks when he said I think hes married a . tart. She has meant to have been only married to Curly for only 2 weeks and shes already on the hunt for other men? Some people think that it is because she was just a tart in the first place and always has been and thats why Curly married her but some other people think that it is because she feels like she is held captive in the house and whenever she is with Curly outside the house it told to go to the house. This shows us that she could be feeling like she is all most an item of Curlys and isnt allowed to go anywhere without permission of Curly. This shows us again that the ranch can be almost like a prison. Conclusion Overall I think that for Chapter Two the statement: The world Of Mice and Men is one of hostility and suspicion is true because if you look at all the points above the only nice thing at the ranch is Candy and he is only putting it on so he doesnt get fired from the ranch and die from not having any money. This shows us that the ranch a place with only Good patches and are few and far between.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Advertising :: essays research papers

For this newspaper report I have selected two ads for trips to Greece in the Greek newspaper, the Orthodox Observer. The travel agencies here are "MARKOS TRAVEL SERVICE" and "PHAROS TRAVEL". Both ads offer trips to Greece with really good deals from all over the United States. "Markos Travel Service" offers non-stop flights on Jumbo 747 with Olympic Airways and says that it has unbelievable low rates from anywhere in the United States. The prices at "Markos Travel Service start from $289.00 the one way ticket which departs from New York (JFK) and arrives in Athens Greece, and the round trip ticket starts from $489.00. Now with "PHAROS TRAVEL" he has the one way ticket $299.00 and the round trip $498.00 plus tax (which usually the tax ranges between $40-60.00 .This travel agency ad tells us about the children's fare too and it also gives a 20% off discount to all corporate accounts with either domestic or international trips. It also deals with add on from all over the United States too and it actually gives us the prices to it. "MARKOS TRAVEL SERVICE" doesn't show these features in its ad not even for the children's price or the discount price. Another difference between the two is that "MARKOS TRAVEL SERVICE" has only one office in Connecticut but "PHAROS TRAVEL" has two locations, one in Manhattan and the other one in Astoria, which makes it much more easier to go too. Both of the travel agencies ads gives us a nation wide toll-free number so you can call them from wherever you are without you being charged. I consider the "PHAROS TRAVEL" ad much more effective than the "MARKOS SERVICE TRAVEL" because first of all "PHAROS TRAVEL" is much more known and has many more years than "MARKOS SERVICE TRAVEL" in business. Also because its ad has everything basically there about what you need to know, far more details and I can say more reasonable prices. "MARKOS TRAVEL SERVICE" may have on the add cheaper prices but when you call in Advertising :: essays research papers For this newspaper report I have selected two ads for trips to Greece in the Greek newspaper, the Orthodox Observer. The travel agencies here are "MARKOS TRAVEL SERVICE" and "PHAROS TRAVEL". Both ads offer trips to Greece with really good deals from all over the United States. "Markos Travel Service" offers non-stop flights on Jumbo 747 with Olympic Airways and says that it has unbelievable low rates from anywhere in the United States. The prices at "Markos Travel Service start from $289.00 the one way ticket which departs from New York (JFK) and arrives in Athens Greece, and the round trip ticket starts from $489.00. Now with "PHAROS TRAVEL" he has the one way ticket $299.00 and the round trip $498.00 plus tax (which usually the tax ranges between $40-60.00 .This travel agency ad tells us about the children's fare too and it also gives a 20% off discount to all corporate accounts with either domestic or international trips. It also deals with add on from all over the United States too and it actually gives us the prices to it. "MARKOS TRAVEL SERVICE" doesn't show these features in its ad not even for the children's price or the discount price. Another difference between the two is that "MARKOS TRAVEL SERVICE" has only one office in Connecticut but "PHAROS TRAVEL" has two locations, one in Manhattan and the other one in Astoria, which makes it much more easier to go too. Both of the travel agencies ads gives us a nation wide toll-free number so you can call them from wherever you are without you being charged. I consider the "PHAROS TRAVEL" ad much more effective than the "MARKOS SERVICE TRAVEL" because first of all "PHAROS TRAVEL" is much more known and has many more years than "MARKOS SERVICE TRAVEL" in business. Also because its ad has everything basically there about what you need to know, far more details and I can say more reasonable prices. "MARKOS TRAVEL SERVICE" may have on the add cheaper prices but when you call in

Monday, January 13, 2020

Bajaj Project Report

A REPORT ON â€Å"Study of Marketing Research On Bajaj Bike† A detailed study done in Bajaj Auto Ltd. Under the guidance of Dr. N. MAHESH A Project Report On â€Å"Study of Marketing Research On Bajaj Bike† A detailed study done in Bajaj Auto Ltd. Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for award of degree of Master of Management Studies (MMS) under university of Mumbai. Submitted By Mr. Sagar Dhoble Roll No: 3003 Batch: 2010-2012 Under the guidance of Dr. N. Mahesh A. C. Patil College of Engineering, Management Studies and Research, Sector 4, Plot 17, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai – 410210 Contact No: 022-2774 5722 / 2786 3644 Fax: 91-22-2774 5732 E-mail: [email  protected] org Web Site: http://www. acpce. org College Certificate This is to certify that Mr. Sagar Dhoble student of final year of Master of Management Studies has prepared a project titled â€Å"Study of Marketing Research On Bajaj Bike† at Bajaj Auto Ltd. as a partial fulfillment of MMS degree for the academic year 2010-2012, University of Mumbai. Dr. N. Mahesh Dr. D. G. Borse (Head of Department) (Director) Guide Certificate This is to certify that this project entitled â€Å"Study of Marketing Research On Bajaj Bike† at Bajaj Auto Ltd. is based on an original work study conducted by Mr. Sagar Dhoble under my guidance. This has not formed a basis for the award of any Degree or Diploma by this university or any other university. Place: Date: Dr. N. Mahesh (Head of Department) Preface In today’s competitive world the practical study forms an important part in each and every professional course. MBA  is a course in which the theoretical knowledge is backed by the practical study. That study is in the form of project. The Summer Training Project is one of the important parts of the curriculum and each and every student has to work for the project. The summer project enables the students to know more about the application of theoretical knowledge. The current situation of the market is made known to the students when they undertake the project. The project gives better insides into the application part of the theory. The companies in an industry and their operations can be better known by the students when they analyze the data, and prepare the grand project. This project is on the Study of Consumer Buying Behaviour at Time to Purchase Bajaj Bike. I have analyzed the industry very deeply and carefully project. One can know about the current scenario of the Indian Two wheeler industry in India. This project enables the reader to have a look at the position of the Two Wheeler companies of the country. Acknowledgement I wish to take this opportunity to express my deep sense of gratitude to Dr. D. G. Borse, Director, ACPCE, MS & R for his invaluable guidance in this endeavor. He has been a constant source of inspiration and I sincerely thank him for his suggestions and help to prepare this project. I express my sincere thanks to Dr. N. Mahesh, HOD, ACPCE, MS & R for his valuable suggestions and for assisting me in the data compilation and analysis which helped me a lot in fine tuning my report. I would like to express my gratitude to all those who gave me the opportunity to complete my internship at Bajaj Auto Ltd. I am deeply indebted to my supervisor Mr. Tushar Pawar, Senior Analyst, (Bajaj Auto Ltd. my corporate guide, for his kind help and support and his valuable guidance throughout my project. I am thankful to his for providing me with necessary insights and helping me out at every single step. Finally, I would like to thank my family members and friends for their Co-operation, advice and encouragement during the long and arduous task of carrying out the project and prepari ng this project. Sagar Dhoble Declaration I hereby declare that the project entitled â€Å"Study of Marketing Research On Bajaj Bike† at Bajaj Auto Ltd has been prepared by me under the guidance of Dr. N. Mahesh, HOD, ACPCE, MS & R, in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree of masters of management. I also hereby declare that this project report is the result of my own efforts and has not been submitted at any time to any other university or institute for the award of any degree or diploma. Place: Date: Sagar Dhoble Executive Summary The present is the era of  customers. Customers are more knowledgeable than ever before & because the customer is more knowledgeable companies must be faster, more agile  and more creative  than  few years  ago. So companies should strive to enhance customer satisfaction through knowing their expectations regarding products. It can be concluded on the basis that market research must be used to find out whether customer’s expectation are being met by current products or services. Consumer perception is based on the images consumers have of the organization and its products, this can be based on value for money, product quality, fashion and products reliability. This is anticipating future trends and forecasting for future sales. This is vital to any organization if they wish to keep their entire current market share and  develop more. Generating income or profit principle  clearly states  that  the  need  of  the organization  is  to be  profitable  enough  to  generate  income  or  growth  and  satisfying  the customer is a big part of companies  plans  they also need to take into account their own needs. For making satisfactory progress an organization need to make sure that their product is developing along with the market, if a product is developing well , then income should increase, if not then the marketing strategy should be revised. An organization should always know what is happening within their designated market, if it is changing, saturation, technological advances, slowing down or rapidly growing, being up to date on this is essential for companies to survive. There are also certain external factors that a company should be very aware of such as P. E. S. T factors i. e (political, environmental, social and technological) and S. W. O. T i. e. (strength, weakness, opportunity, and threat). A business must  take into account all these constraints when Designing and introducing a marketing strategy. It can be concluded that an organization must treat customers as a king  in the market and provide them essential, satisfied and quality products and then the consumer buying activity will increase and subsequently sales will increase. Index Organization certificate†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ I College certificate†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. II Guide certificate†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. III Preface†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ IV Acknowledgment†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. V Declaration †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ VI Executive summary†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. VII Chapter1. Introduction†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 3 1. 1 Title of the Project†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 13 1. 2 Overview of Automobile Industry†¦ †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 13 1. 3 About Bajaj†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 20 1. 4 Problem Definition†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 22 1. 5 Scope of Study†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 22 1. 6 Objectives of Study†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 23 1. 7 Limitations†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 23 Chapter2. Review of Literature†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 24 Chapter3. Research Methodology†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 30 3. 1 Introduction†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 0 3. 2 Research Design†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 31 3. 3 Sources of Data†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 32 3. 4 Data Collection Method†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã ¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 33 3. 5 Sampling Plan†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 34 Chapter4. Data analysis and Interpretation†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 35 Chapter5. Findings†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 45 Chapter6. Conclusion and Suggestions†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 46 Chapter7. References†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã ¢â‚¬ ¦.. 48 7. Bibliography†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. †¦.. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 48 7. 2 Appendix†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 50 CHAPTER – 1 Introduction:- 1. 1 Title of the project:- Title of the project is â€Å"Study of Marketing Research On Bajaj Bike† 1. 2 Overview of Automobile Industry:- The History of the automobile actually began about 4,000 years ago when the first wheel was used for transportation in India. Several Italians recorded designs for wind-driven vehicles. The first was  Guido da Vigevano in 1335. It was a windmill-type drive to gears and thus to wheels. Vaturio designed a similar vehicle that was also never built. Later Leonardo da Vinci designed clockwork-driven tricycle with tiller steering and a differential mechanism between the rear wheels. In the early 15th  century, the Portuguese arrived in China and the interaction of two cultures led to a variety of new technologies, including the creation of a wheel that turned under its own power. By the 1600s, small steam-powered engine models were developed, but it was another century before a full-sized engine-powered vehicle was created. A Catholic priest named Father Ferdinan Verbiest is credited to have built a steam-powered vehicle for the Chinese Emperor Chien Lung in about 1678. There is no information about the vehicle, only the event. Since James Watt didn’t invent the steam engine until 1705, we can guess that this was possibly a model vehicle powered by a mechanism like Hero’s steam engine-a-spinning wheel with jets on the periphery. Although by the mid-15th  century the idea of a self-propelled vehicle had been put into practice with the development of experimental vehicles powered by means of springs, clockworks, and the wind, Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot of France is considered to have built the first true automobile in 1769. Designed by Cugnot and constructed by M. Brezin, it is also the first vehicle to move under its own power for which there is a record. Cugnot’s three-wheeled steam-powered vehicle carried four persons and was meant to move artillery pieces. It had a top speed of a little more than 3. 2 km/h (2 mph) and had to stop every 20 minutes to build up a fresh steam. Evans was the first American who obtained a patent for â€Å"a self-propelled carriage. † He, in fact, attempted to create a two-in-one combination of a steam wagon and a flat-bottomed boat, which didn’t receive any attention in those days. During the 1830’s, the steam vehicle had made great advances. But stiff competition from railway companies and crude legislations in Britain forced the poor steam vehicle gradually out of use on roads. Carl Benz and Gottlieb Daimler, both Germans, share the credit of changing the transport habits of the world, for their efforts laid the foundation of the great motor industry, as we know it today. First, Carl Benz invented the petrol engine in 1885 and a year later Daimler made a car driven by motor of his own design and the rest is history. Daimler’s engine proved to be a great success mainly because of its less weight that could deliver 1000rpm and needed only very small and light vehicles to carry them. France too had joined the motoring scenario by 1890 when two Frenchmen Panhard and Levassor began producing vehicles powered by Daimler engine, and Daimler himself, possessed by the automobile spirit, went on adding new features to his engine. He built the first V-Twin engine with a glowing platinum tube to explode the cylinder gas-the very earliest form of sparking plug. Charles Duryea built a motor carriage in America with petrol engine in 1892, followed by Elwood Haynes in 1894, thus paving the way for motorcars in that country. For many years after the introduction of automobiles, three kinds of power sources were in common use: steam engines, gasoline or petrol engines, and electric motors. In 1900, over 2,300 automobiles were registered in New York, Boston, Massachusetts, and Chicago. Of these, 1,170 were steam cars, 800 were electric cars, and only 400 were gasoline cars. In ten years from the invention of the petrol engine, the motorcar had evolved itself into amazing designs and shapes. By 1898, there were 50 automobile-manufacturing companies in the United States, a number that rose to 241 by 1908. In that year, Henry Ford revolutionized the manufacture of automobiles  with his assembly- line style of production and brought out the Model T, a car that was inexpensive, versatile, and easy to maintain. Herbert Austin and William Morris, two different carmakers, introduced mass production methods of assembly in the UK, thus paving the way for a revolution in the automobile industry. Austin Seven was the world’s first practical four-seater ‘baby car’ which brought the pleasures of motoring to many thousands of people who could not buy a larger, more expensive car. Even the ‘bull-nose’ Morris with front mounted engine became the well-loved model and one of the most popular cars in the 1920s. Automobile manufacturers in the 1930s and 1940s refined and improved on the principles of Ford and other pioneers. Cars were generally large, and many were still extremely expensive and luxurious; many of the most collectible cars date from this time. The increased affluence of the United States after World War II led to the development of large, petrol-consuming vehicles, while most companies in Europe made smaller, more fuel-efficient cars. Indian Automobile – History India is the second largest manufacturer and producer of two-wheelers in the world. It stands next only to Japan and China in terms of the number of two-wheelers produced and domestic sales respectively. The Indian two-wheeler industry made a small beginning in the early 50s when  Automobile Products of India (API)  started manufacturing scooters in the country. Until 1958, API and Enfield were the sole producers. In  1948, Bajaj Auto  began trading in imported  Vespa scooters and three-wheelers. Finally,  in 1960, it set up a shop to manufacture them in technical collaboration with Piaggio  of Italy. The agreement expired in 1971. In the initial stages, the scooter segment was dominated by API, it was later  overtaken by Bajaj Auto. Although various government and private enterprises entered the fray for scooters, the only new player that has lasted till today is LML. Under the regulated regime, foreign companies were not allowed to operate in India. It was a complete seller market with the waiting period for getting a scooter from  Bajaj Auto being as high as 12 years. The motorcycles segment was no different, with only three manufacturers viz  Enfield, Ideal Jawa and Escorts. While Enfield bullet  was a four-stroke bike, Jawa and the Rajdoot were two-stroke bikes. The motorcycle segment was initially dominated by  Enfield 350cc bikes and Escorts 175cc bike. The two-wheeler market was  opened to foreign competition  in themid-80s. And then market leaders – Escorts and Enfield – were caught unaware by the onslaught of the 100cc bikes of the four Indo-Japanese joint ventures. With the availability of fuel efficient low power bikes, demand swelled, resulting in Hero Honda  Ã¢â‚¬â€œ then the only producer of four stroke bikes (100cc category), gaining a top slot. The first Japanese motorcycles were introduced in the early eighties. TVS Suzuki and Hero Honda  brought in the first two-stroke and  four-stroke engine  motorcycles respectively. These two players initially started with assembly of CKD kits, and later on progressed to indigenous manufacturing. In the 90s the major growth for motorcycle segment was brought in by Japanese motorcycles, which grew at a rate of nearly 25% CAGR in the last five years. The industry had a smooth ride in  the 50s, 60s and 70s  when the Government prohibited new entries and strictly controlled capacity expansion. The industry saw a sudden growth in the 80s. The industry witnessed a steady growth of 14% leading to a peak volume of 1. 9mn vehicles in 1990. The entry of Kinetic Honda in mid-eighties with a variometric scooter helped in providing ease of use to the scooter owners. In 1990, the entire  automobile industry saw  a  drastic fall  in demand. This resulted in a  decline of 15% in 1991 and 8% in 1992, resulting in a production loss of 0. mn vehicles. Barring Hero Honda, all the major producers suffered from recession in FY93 and FY94. Hero Honda showed a marginal decline in 1992. The reasons for recession in the sector were the incessant rise in fuel prices, high input costs and reduced purchasing power due to significant rise in general price level and credit crunch in consumer financing. Factors like increased production in 1992, due to new entrants coupled with the recession in the industry resulted in company either reporting losses or a fall in profits. India is one of the very few countries manufacturing three-wheelers  in the world. It is the world's largest manufacturer and seller of three-wheelers. Bajaj Auto commands a monopoly  in the domestic market with a  market share of above 80%, the  rest is shared by Bajaj Tempo, Greaves Ltd and Scooters India. The total number of registered two-wheelers and three wheelers on road in India, as on March 31, 1998 was 27. 9mn and 1. 7mn respectively. The two wheeler population has almost doubled in 1996 from a base of 12. 6mn in 1990. 1. 3 About Bajaj:- The  Bajaj Group  came into existence  in 1926, during the turmoil and the heady euphoria of India’s freedom struggle. Jamnalal Bajaj, founder of the group, was a close confidant and disciple of Mahatma Gandhi, and was deeply involved in the effort for freedom. The integrity, dedication, resourcefulness and determination to succeed which are characteristic of the company today, are often traced back to its birth during those long days of relentless devotion to a common cause. Kamalnayan Bajaj, the eldest  son of Jamnalal Bajaj, at the age of 27,  he took over the reins of business  in 1942. Putting the Nation before business, he devoted himself to the latter only after India achieved independence in 1947 and then after he was able to give his full attention to the business. Kamalnayan Bajaj  not only consolidated the group, but also diversified into various manufacturing activities, elevating the group to the status it enjoys till this day. At present  Chairman and Managing Director of the group, is Rahul Bajaj,  took charge of the business  since 1965  and is recognized as one of the most outstanding business leaders in India. As dynamic and ambitious as his illustrious predecessors, he has been recognized for his achievement at various national and international forums. Bajaj  is currently  India’s Largest Two and Three Wheeler manufacturer  and one of the biggest in the world. Under Rahul Bajaj’s  leadership, the turnover of the Bajaj Auto the flagship company has gone up from  Rs. 72 million to Rs. 46. 16 billion (USD 936 million),  its product portfolio has expanded from one to and the brand has found a global market. He is one of India’s most distinguished business leaders and internationally respected for his business acumen and entrepreneurial spirit. . 4 Problem Definition:- There are many companies manufacturing motorcycles into the market, at the same time as there are many companies manufacturing motorcycles, idea about thinking of customer on whether, what, how, and for whom to purchase the motorcycle. Therefore, research is required to measure present consumer buying behavior at the purchase of Bajaj bike. So the researcher problem is to identify what are the criteria that prospective customer takes into consideration before buying the motorcycles. 1. 5 Scope of Study:- The study on Marketing Research would help us:- To know about his product potential in the market vis-a-vis the total product; * New Products; * Various brands; * Pricing; * Market Structures and selection of product strategy, etc. * To get feedback from customer. * Company also wants the suggestion for improvement from users of Bajaj Vehicles. 1. 6 Objectives of Study:- â€Å"Study of Marketing Research Regarding Two Wheeler (Automobiles Industry)† * The demographics of who is buying the product at the present compared to the demographics of people buying competitors’ products. Satisfaction of customers and potential customers with the products they are buying. * Attitudes of customers and potential customers towards the value for money of the products from different suppliers. * Features about the product that customers would like to see improved. * The awareness amongst potential customers of product. * Factors that would prompt potential customers to buy from the company. 1. 7 Limitations:- * The market survey was limited to area of Pune city. * Time Constraint. * In such cases respondents were not able to give all information was taken. We can’t meet each and every user because of human limitations and other problems so we select some sample. CHAPTER – 2 Review of Literature:- As noted by NMCC (2006), competitiveness of manufacturing sector is a very broad multi-dimensional concept that embraces numerous aspects such as price, quality, productivity, efficiency and macro-economic environment. There are numerous studies on auto industry in India, published by industry associations, consultancy organizations, research bodies and peer-reviewed journals. In this section, various studies on the Indian auto industry are evie wed, under different heads pertaining to global comparisons, fiscal and trade policies and evolution of the Indian auto industry and other aspects. Global Comparisons The Investment Information and Credit Rating Agency of India (ICRA, 2003) studies the competitiveness of the Indian auto industry, by global comparisons of macro environment, policies and cost structure. This has a detailed account on the evolution of the global auto industry. The United States was the first major player from 1900 to 1960, after which Japan took its place as the cost-efficient leader. Cost efficiency being the only real means in as mature an industry as automobiles to retain or improve market share, global auto manufacturers have been sourcing from the developing countries. India and China have emerged as favourite destinations for the first-tier OEMs since late 1980s. There are only a few dominant Indian OEMs, while the number of OEMs is very large in China (122 car manufacturers and 120 motorcycle manufacturers). ICRA (2004) analyses the implications of the India-ASEAN5 Free Trade Agreements for the Indian automotive industry. ASEAN economies are globally more integrated than India. The current size of Indian and ASEAN market for automobiles is more or less the same but the Indian market has a larger growth potential than the ASEAN market due to the low level of penetration. The labour cost is low in India but the stringent labour regulations erode this advantage. The level of infrastructure is better in India than Indonesia and the Philippines but worse than that in other ASEAN countries. The financial and banking sector is better in India than in the ASEAN countries. The study notes that there is a huge excess capacity in ASEAN countries, in comparison with that in India, which will help them to tackle the excess demand that may arise in future. The study finds a 20-30 per cent cost disadvantage for Indian companies on account of taxation and infrastructure and 5-20 per cent labour cost advantage over comparable ASEAN-member-based companies. Similar findings are noted in a study by the Automotive Component Manufacturers Association of India (ACMA, 2004), particularly in comparison with Thailand. Policy Environment and Evolution of Indian Auto Industry In this section, studies on the policy environment pertaining to the Indian auto industry and its evolution over the years have been reviewed. Pingle (2000) reviews the policy framework of India’s automobile industry and its impact on its growth. While the ties between bureaucrats and the managers of state-owned enterprises played a positive role especially since the late 1980s, ties between politicians and industrialists and between politicians and labour leaders have impeded the growth. The first phase of 1940s and 1950s was characterised by socialist ideology and vested interests, resulting in protection to the domestic auto industry and entry barriers for foreign firms. There was a good relationship between politicians and industrialists in this phase, but bureaucrats played little role. Development of ancillaries segment as recommended by the L. K. Jha Committee report in 1960 was a major event that took place towards the end of this phase. During the second phase of rules, regulations and politics, many political developments and economic problems affected the auto industry, especially passenger cars segment, in the 1960s and 1970s. Though politicians picked winners and losers mainly by licensing production, this situation changed with oil crises and other related political and macro-economic constraints. The third phase starting in the early 1980s was characterised by delicensing, liberalization and opening up of FDI in the auto sector. These policies resulted in the establishment of new LCV manufacturers (for example, Swaraj Mazda, DCM Toyota) and passenger car manufacturers. 7 All these developments led to structural changes in the Indian auto industry. Pingle argues that state intervention and ownership need not imply poor results and performance, as demonstrated by Maruti Udyog Limited (MUL). Further, the noncontractual relations between bureaucrats and MUL dictated most of the policies in the 1980s, which were biased towards passenger cars and MUL in particular. However, D’Costa (2002) argues that MUL’s success is not particularly attributable to the support from bureaucrats. Rather, any firm that is as good as MUL in terms of scale economies, first-comer advantage, affordability, product novelty, consumer choice, financing schemes and extensive servicing networks would have performed as well, even in the absence of bureaucratic support. D’Costa has other criticisms about Pingle (2000) The major shortcoming of Pingle’s study is that it ignores the issues related to sectors pecific technologies and regional differences across the country. In August 2006, a Draft of Automotive Mission Plan Statement prepared in consultation with the industry was released by the Ministry of Heavy Industries and Public Enterprises. This was finally released as a report in December 2006. This document draws an action plan to take the turnover of the automotive industry in India to US$145 billion by 2016, accounting for more than 10 per cent of the GDP and providing additional employment to 25 million people, by 2016. A special emphasis is laid on small cars, MUVs, two-wheelers and auto-components. Measures suggested include setting up of a National Auto Institute, streamlining government/educational/research institutions to the needs of the auto industry, upgrading infrastructure, considering changes in duty structure and fiscal incentives for R;D. Similarly, NMCC (2006), which lays down a national strategy for manufacturing, recognises the importance of the Indian automobile and auto-component industry, particularly the latter, as a competitive knowledge-based industry with immense employment generation potential. The policy recommendations of this study include VAT implementation, lower indirect taxes, power reforms, tax benefits linked to export earnings, duty-cut for raw material imports, R;D incentives for a longer period, establishment of auto parks, benefits for export-seeking investments, human resources development and modernisation fund for new investments in auto clusters. Industry players have been advised to improve their operational performance, determine their strategic posture as one among those identified in the study, improve capabilities in line with their posture and invest very rapidly in a planned manner. ACMA needs to promote India as a brand, enable sourcing from India by global customers and promote the quality and productivity efforts of the autocomponent firms in India. ACMA (2006) notes that India’s joining the WP (Working Party) 29: 1998 Agreement for global harmonisation of automotive standards, coupled with the funding of National Automotive Testing and Research Infrastructure Project (NATRIP) by the Government of India, has increased prospects of the Indian auto industry rising up to global standards in the near future, in all aspects. Narayanan (2004) analyses the determinants of growth of Indian automobile firms during three different policy regimes, namely, licensing (1980-81 to 1984-85), deregulation (1985-86 to 1990-91) and liberalisation (1991-92 to 1995-96). Unlike the prediction by Narayanan (1998), this study finds that vertical integration is detrimental for growth in a liberalised regime as it potentially limits diversification. Narayanan (2006) also finds that vertical integration plays a positive role in a regulated regime, while it is not conducive for export competitiveness in a liberal regime. CHAPTER – 3 Research Methodology:- . 1 Introduction:- Marketing research is the function which links the consumer, customer and public to the marketers through information used to identify and define marketing, opportunities and problems, generates refine marketing action; monitor marketing performance and improve understanding of marketing as a process. Marketing research specifies the information requ ired to address these issues; designs the method for collection information manages and implements the data collection process; analysis the results and communication the findings and their implication. Research definition:- Research is careful inquiry or examination to discover new information and relationship and to expand and to verify exiting knowledge† Research always starts with questions or a problem. Its purpose is to find answer to questions through the application of the scientific method. It is a systematic and intensive study directed towards a more complete knowledge of the subject studies. 3. 2 Research Design:- â€Å"Research design is the plan, structure and strategy of investigation conceived so as to obtain answer to research question and to control variance. † From definition it is evident that research design is one or ess a blueprint of research. At the outset may be noted that there are several ways of studying and tackling a problem. There is no s ignal perfect design. The research design can be classified in to true broad categories: (A) Exploratory (B) Descriptive (C) Casual Exploratory research is focus on the discovery of ideas. Exploratory research is carried out to define problems and developed hypothesis to test later. An exploratory study is generally based on the secondary data that are reading available. It does not have to change his focus of direction, depending on the availability of new ideas and relationship among variables. Descriptive studies are undertaken in many circumstances. Descriptive studies can be complex, determining a high degree of scientific skill on the part of the researcher. Casual research helps in determined cause and effect relationship. Between two or more variables. The present study seeks to find out the consumers attitude towards buying of bike. The study also aims at findings out the drawbacks of the marketing set up of BAJAJ AUTO LTD. So this makes the study a descriptive one. 3. 3 Sources of Data:- The sources of data collection methods are as follows. a) Primary data:- Primary data i. e. ollected for the first time. It is fresh and originally collected by the surveyor. I will used only primary data in calculating the study and collect the data. b) Secondary data:- Secondary data are those data which are already collected by someone for some purpose and are available for the present study; secondary data are already collected by the company‘s records and other libraryâ⠂¬Ëœs books. When the secondary data are sufficient, the researcher has to be satisfied with the primary sources of data. Secondary data can be used as bases for comparison with primary data have been collected by questionnaire. . 4 Data Collection Method:- While making an analysis,  Primary data  represents a true and correct picture of subject to be studied as  compared to the secondary data, which is second hand ; has become obsolete. So to know about the current situation of the market and actual facts, collection and analysis of primary data is of significance. We have presented the â€Å"Research findings on the basis of Primary Data†Ã‚  collected through a  survey  conducted with the help of questionnaires of customers of Pune City. The questionnaire contains three types of questions. * Open-ended question:- It is helpful in knowing what is uppermost in the mind of the respondents. It gives complete freedom to the respondent. * Dichotomous questions:- It has only two answers in form ‘yes’ or ‘no’, ‘true’ or ‘false’, ‘use’ or ‘do not use’. So the respondent is offered two or more choice. * Multiple-choice question:- In this, the respondent is offered two or more choice. 3. 5 Sampling Plan:- Sampling is a process of obtaining the information about the entire population by examine a part of it . The effectiveness of the research depends on the sample size selected for the survey purpose. A) Sample Site:- The survey was conducted in PUNE CITY. (B)Sampling Unit:- It means â€Å"Who is to be surveyed†. Here target population is decided and it is who are interested to purchase â€Å"Bike† and sampling frame is developed so that everyone in the target population has known chance of being sampled. So the s urvey is conducted particularly in Pune City. (C)Sample size:- We collect several sample for both Market Research. Total 134 outlets were surveyed for both project. * 82 outlets were surveyed for the project of Service Satisfaction of customers from â€Å"Automotive Mfrs†Ã‚  after purchasing Vehicle. 52 outlets were surveyed for the project of Customer Perception for Purchasing Vehicle. CHAPTER – 4 Data analysis and Interpretation:- We Collect Data of 82 Vehicles for Market Research of Bajaj Dealer Service. Q. 1)From where Customer Purchase Vehicle? Q. 2)Where you service your vehicle? Q. 3)Time taken at service station to understand vehicle problem is Appropriate? Q. 4)Have they understand service problem properly? Q. 5)Have customer get Expense Detail of service in advance? Q. 6)After Competion of Service have they give Information about what they do in Service? Q. 7)Behaviors of Automotive’s staff is proper or not? Q. 8) Given Problem is Solved by the Engineers or Not? Q. 9) Have you got Delivery of vehicle in time after giving it in Service? Q. 10) The customer Satisfied with Service or Not? CHAPTER – 5 Findings:- * We conduct 82 sample for know the customer service satisfaction of â€Å"Automotive Mfrs Pvt Ltd†. * From this 82 sample, 49 samples are of Automotive, 24 sample of Rajashri ; 9 other Bajaj’s dealer in Pune. * 71% Customer are satisfied with Automotives service ; 29% are not satisfied due to some reasons. Automotive save the time of customer by taking lesser time while they come for servicing their vehicle. And also engineer understand customers problem properly. * Automotive gives expense detail advance so most of customer are satisfied with the expense detail. * Service satisfaction of automotive customer is higher than other dealer’s service. * If some customer make service on both Rajashri and Automotive then the customer prefer Automotive more because Automotive give qualitative service so that customer satisfaction from Automotive is higher. CHAPTER – 6 Conclusion and Suggestions:- The Suggestions  that are given by  Customers and we give suggestions as a market researcher for Improving in a service. Because after selling of a vehicle customer may has some of the problem and customer come for solve their problem through service and company should try to give proper service to satisfy customer by solving their problem. The suggestions are as followed: * Company should take  less time  for service the vehicle. * Company takes Higher Charges for Pay Service. This should be reducing. * Company should  facilitate a Scheme  for servicing Old Vehicles  so that all the customer service their vehicle at company’s service station. Dealers should improve  staff behavior. Some time it create trouble for customers. * Price of spare parts  should be  lesser  than market price. * Some time Vehicles problem is not solved so company try to concentrate on solving a problem and also see that this type of problem should not arise in future. * Sometimes they only  wash the vehicles. This should not happen in future otherwise company can loose the customer. * All parts  should be available at service station. Because sometime customer face the problem that parts are not available. Only one person should take the responsibility  to check * the vehicles problem and also to solve the problem. CHAPTER – 7 References:- 7. 1 Bibliography:- a) Kotler, Philip 2002,PHI(I)P. ltd, Marketing management b) Kothari, C. R. 2001,Himayalayan Publications, Research Methodology Magazines and News papers:- a) Auto car India b) Business Today c) Business World d) Business India e) Economic Times f) The Hindu g) India Today Websites Visited:- http://xkmph. com/discuss/index. php? topic=2298. 0 http://allprojectreports. com/index. htm http://pakistanmba. jimdo. com/free-marketing-projects-2/ ttp://www. skirec. com/ http://findpdf. net/ebooks/books-about-case-study-about-marketing-strategy-Bajaj-Auto-case-study-about-marketing-channels-free-d ownload. html http://nisearch. com/bajaj-auto/1/ http://tejas-iimb. org/articles/21. php http://www. stuffspec. com/publicfiles/Summer_Internship_Project_Report_In_Ms_Word_Format. html http://wwww. justdial. com/srch/all_indiasrch/all_india. php http://hbr. org/product/bajaj-auto-ltd-portuguese-version/an/508P02-PDF-POR http://stocktraderschat. com/search/two-wheeler-automotive-product-manufacture/1/ http://www. fundinguniverse. om/company-histories/Bajaj-Auto-Limited-Company-History. html http://www. scribd. com/doc/50035324/Study-on-Consumer-Buying-Behaviour-amp-Satisfaction-Level-of-Two-Wheeler-With-Refrence-to-Bajaj-Auto-Ltd 7. 2 Appendix:- Questionnaire Q. 1. How many brand of two-wheeler do you know? MO`BIKE SCOOTER Hero Honda LML Bajaj Auto Honda Suzuki Bajaj Auto TVS Kinetic Engineering Enfield Yahama Cosmo Blaster LML Q. 2. Which type of two wheeler you prefer most? (a) Motor Bike (b) Scooter (c) Moped / Scooties Q. 3. which attributes do you like most in your two-wheeler? Rates the Various factors you consider most? (1-6, 1 is most important) (1. ) Luggage space (2. ) Fuel Efficiency (3. ) Pick up (4. ) Resale value (5. ) Driving comfort (6. ) Out look Q. 4. what is your source of finance? (a) Bank Loan (b) Finance Company (c) Self financing (d) Any Other Q. what are the external factors that influence you about purchasing Bike? (a) Print media (b) Electronic media (c) Exhibition (d) Trade shows (e) Brand image Q. 6 which brand right now you are having? (a) Hero Honda (b) Bajaj Auto (c) TVS (d) Suzuki (e) Yamaha (f ) LML Q. 7. Should Company go for innovation in context to development of new Bike? (a) Yes (b) No Q. 8. While going for the development of new bike which point the company Should keep in mind (a) Acceptability of customer (b) Scale of economic c) Comfort (d) Design (e) Others Q . 9 According to you which company`s model you like most and Why- (A) Bajaj Caliber (b) TVS Victor (c) Honda Activa (d) Yahama Libero (e) Hero Honda Ambition Q. 10. Please give suggestions to improve your present brand. __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ CUSTOMER PERSONAL INFORMATION A. Name:-___________________________________________ B. Address:-___________________________________________ C. phone no:-__________________________________________ D. Age (in year):- 18 to 20[]21 to 25[ ] 26 to 30[]31 to 35[ ] 36 to 40[]41 ; above[ ] E. Occupation:- Services[]Businessman[] Students[]Professional[] Others[] F. monthly income:- 5000 [ ] 5000-10,000[] 10,000-15,000 [ ] 15,000-20,000[] 20,000 Above [ ] Sing. ___________________ Date. ___________________

Sunday, January 5, 2020

English 102 Poetry Essay - 925 Words

Poetry Essay Aldain Barham Liberty University English 102 Thesis Statement: The poem is a great example of communicative techniques and display of mood. Themes of the poem include man and nature, life and religion to list a few. Because the identity of the poet isnt really entailed in the poem but further investigation on him has given me answers which prove relevant to the poem. Although the setting of the poem isnt explicitly listed in the poem one can get a feel of the setting due to the fact that it was written in 1877 which was in the industrialization era. And all of the themes are strongly conveyed within the poem and descriptive in nature. (1. Themes a. Man and Nature b. Life c. Religion (2.†¦show more content†¦As we investigate the final two line of the poem we see that the author states, â€Å"Because the Holy Ghost over the be World broods with warm breast and with ah! bright wings.† As we know the Holy Ghost has been a stable throughout religion particularly in Christianity which manifest itself within the Holy Trinity which is considered God (Father), Christ( The son) and the Holy Spirit otherwise referred to as the Holy Ghost. Aside from the main themes of the poem further investigation of the poem shows us that no true setting or time is given but, we do know that this poem was written in 1877 which was a period of industrialization and can account for the mentioning of oil within the poem. The symbolism in the setting alludes to imminent downfall of nature beginning with the industrialization era into current times were we see the implications of its effect on natures current state. Overall the mood of â€Å"God’s Grandeur† is melancholy considering that the author states how mankind has populated nature which is created by God, filling it with smells, leaving nature in toil and even causing so much destruction and lewdness upon the earth that the soil is left bearing and corrupted. Throughout the poem the author uses various methods of communication to convey his message which include alliteration, onomatopoeia, and assonanceShow MoreRelatedAs my freshman year of college comes to a close, I reflect on my two English courses this year. I600 Words   |  3 Pagesreflect on my two English courses this year. I have learned a lot these last two semester in my english 101 and 102 classes. English 101 focused a lot on different types of papers, while English 102 focused mainly on taking what we learned from a reading and analysing and interpreting of stories and poems we read. 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